What is Executive Functioning?
Executive functioning (EF) is comprised of a series of cognitive skills that allow for successful planning, time management, organization, emotional regulation, attention, self-monitoring, and perspective taking. People with EF weaknesses can struggle with working memory, flexible thinking, and self-control (Understood.org). When someone has difficulty with executive functioning skills, the effects can be observed across activities and the issues manifest in different ways. Someone can demonstrate difficulty with 2 or 3 EF skills, while others demonstrate consistent difficulty with more skills.
This resource from Understood.org outlines in-depth information about the critical skills involved in executive functioning, but this article is going to focus on how key EF skills can manifest for students when starting, planning, or following through on projects and academic processes.